Biologique (bio) in French, biologico in Italian , ecologico in Spanish and ecologic in Romanian.
Growing grapevines without any application of synthetic chemical products or artificial fertilisers.
(Prohibited: synthetic fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides; chemical weed killers, genetically modified products. Permitted: organic fertilization, spraying with copper and sulphur, natural products)
But certain strictly regulated interventions might be applied to nourishment and soil improvement. Natural fertilisers will comprise materials such as animal and vegetable compost, animal dung, guano, algae, natural calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, natural potassium sulphate, calcium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, wine lees, composted grape skin residues, trace elements or biodynamic preparations).
Organic vine-growers use preventive measures as their main protective method and only non-systematic (contact) sprays are allowed to be applied.
From 2012 organic wine can be produced (not only organic grapes).
The EU’S general definition of organic farming runs as follows:
Organic production is an overall system of farm management and food production that combines best environmental practices, a high level biodiversity, the preservation of natural resources, the application of high animal welfare standards and a production method in line with preference of certain consumers for products produced using natural substances and processes. The organic production method thus plays a dual societal role, where it on the one hand provides for a specific market responding to a consumer demand for organic products, and on the other hand delivers public goods contributing to the protection of the environment and animal welfare, as well as to rural development.
BIO certification stipulates a 3-year conversion period and is followed by annual inspections.